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Board of Experts (Corresponding Citizen Scientists)

IAPG has a board of experts on specific issues related to geoethics. They are called "Corresponding Citizen Scientist" (CCS).

She/He has the important cultural function of stimulating our community with papers or news. The CCS is interested in Earth sciences and humanities and in promoting issues on geoethics and the IAPG. The CCS can work calmly, without deadlines, to listen and to share her/his thinking/information with the IAPG network through IAPG channels.

Martin Bohle
Ronin Institute for Independent Scholarship (Germany)
Exploring Societal Frameworks of the Earth Sciences

He is an independent third-age scholar who joint the IAPG as Corresponding Citizen Scientist interested in the societal frameworks of the Earth sciences (geosciences). He is associated with the Ronin Institute for Independent Scholarship (Montclair) and the Edgeryders Research Network (Brussels). His experience combines international science management and coordination of public administrations (European Commission, 1991-2019) with an education in Physics and Oceanography (Germany, 1975-80), research practice in applied geophysical fluid dynamics (Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral de Lausanne, PhD), modelling of marine ecosystem (University of Hamburg), and operational monitoring (German Federal Maritime Agency). He worked together with researchers, scholars, scientists, engineers, administrators, economists and lawyers of various cultures, and looks forward to cooperate with artists. Against that background, his scholarly interests focus on the interfaces between geosciences and society. Among his concerns are resourceful societies, the intersections of ‘culture’ and ‘nature’, and humans in times of ‘anthropogenic global change’. Since several years, he publishes on geoethics.

Madhumita Das
Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa (India)
Geoethical aspects
in Low Income Countries

Professor at the Department of Geology of the Utkal University (India), with specialisation in igneous petrology, environmental geology and disaster management. Special interest in popularising geoscience and gender studies. 34 years of academic experience, joined as a Lecturer in Geology in 1980 in Utkal Universty, and continuing as a Professor since 2003. She has carried out research under Indo-German Exchange Programme at Heidelberg University in Germany (1989-90). She is member of the National Working Group, in the IGCP (International Geological Correlation Programme)-597, and member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Sustainable Planet. She has also 30 years of research experience and she was involved in projects in India on the Thermal Springs of Orissa; Geology of Eastern Ghats; Genesis of Ultrabasic rocks; Impact of Manganese Mining on health of female mine workers; Mineralogy, geochemistry and petrogenesis of pyrophyllite deposits of Keonjhar District, Orissa. She attended many seminars and presented papers as University delegate in Japan, China, United Kingdom, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Portugal, Norway, Australia and India.

Iain Stewart
Plymouth University (UK)
Geoscience Education and Communication

He is professor of Geoscience Communication at Plymouth University and Director of its Sustainable Earth Institute. His long-standing research interests are in interdisciplinary investigations of geological hazards (earthquakes, volcanism, tsunamis) and abrupt environmental change, and more recently in the communication of "contested geoscience" to the public. After a studying Geography and Geology at Strathclyde University (1986), and completing a PhD in earthquake geology at Bristol University (1990), he taught Earth Science at Brunel University until 2002. He then left to develop public geoscience projects, and in the last decade or so has presented major television series for the BBC on the nature, history and state of the planet. Among these are ‘Earth: The Power of the Planet’, ‘Earth: The Climate Wars’, ‘How Earth Made Us’, ‘How To Grow A Planet’, ‘Volcano Live’, and ‘Rise of the Continents’. He regularly fronts BBC Horizon specials on geoscientific topics (Japanese earthquake, the Russian meteor strike, Shale gas/Fracking, Florida sinkholes). His latest BBC series - a 3-parter on the history of oil: ‘Planet Oil’. In recent years has received awards for geoscience communication from the Royal Geographical Society (2010), the Geologists Association (2009), the Geological Society of London (2010), the American Geophysical Union (2013), and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (2105), European Federation of Geologists (2017). He was the inaugural recipient of The University of New South Wales’s Scientia Medal for science communication. He is currently President of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and the Earth Science Teachers Association, and Patron of the Scottish Geodiversity Forum and of the English Riviera GeoPark. In the 2013 Birthday Honours List he was recognised for his work on public engagement in geoscience with an MBE.

David Mogk
Montana State University (USA)
Geo-education and Teaching Geoethics

David Mogk is Professor of Geology and former Head of the Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University. He is a metamorphic petrologist by training, with research interests in genesis and evolution of Archean continental crust, mid-crustal petrogenetic processes, and spectroscopy of mineral surfaces. He has worked in mineral exploration for precious, base and industrial minerals, and has also worked on environmental remediation of mine sites. For the past 25 years he has worked to promote excellence in geoscience education. He was program officer in NSF’s Division of Undergraduate Education; Chair of GSA’s Education Division; worked to establish the Digital Library for Earth Science Education and the National Science Digital Library; has been co-PI of the On the Cutting Edge Program for geoscience faculty professional development; has served on the EarthScope and EarthChem advisory boards; was a panelist on NRC Board On Science Education panels on Integrating Research and Education in Biocomplexity Projects, Promising Practices in STEM Education, and Discipline-Based Education Research; and is co-editor of GSA Special Paper volume on Earth and Mind: How Geologists Think and Learn About the Earth and Field Geology Instruction: Historical Perspectives and Modern Approaches. He is past chair of the U.S. National Committee for Geosciences to the IUGS where he worked to promote development of geoheritage sites. For the past decade he has led the initiative in the United States to promote Teaching Geoethics Across the Geoscience Curriculum including website development of Teaching Geoethics Across the Geoscience Curriculum:

Manuel Florentino Gomes Abrunhosa
APEQ - Portuguese Association for the Study of the Quaternary and the Portuguese Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (Portugal)
Geoethics in Groundwater Management

Graduated in Geology from the University of Porto (Portugal) in 1980, he obtained a Specialist degree in Hydrogeology from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia in 1988.
Began his professional career as a Junior Geologist in 1977, even before graduating, in a private company, working, studying and continuing to give classes of assistance to the practical works of several disciplines of his Geology course, since 1974. After acquiring shares of a company of services of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology he managed since then, directed innumerable projects aimed to the private and public sector until 2009. Also in 1981, after public exams, became a Lecturer in the Course of Geology of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto, having taught theoretical and practical classes, namely Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, and Sedimentary Petrology, oriented pedagogic internships, and did research in hydrogeology of fractured media and in the optimization of groundwater exploitation in a thin coastal sandy aquifer. His interests included Geoarchaeology with collaborations in several research groups. Out of his academy he was invited to the foundation of the first academic course in Portugal on Environmental Health and Hygiene and of to the first Master in Environmental Marketing. He has extensive experience in Forensic Geology as an expert in lawsuits and pro bono support to heritage and environmental advocacy associations. Since 2006 he is an Independent Consultant Geologist. More recently he has been appointed as member of the Board of APEQ - Portuguese Association for the Study of the Quaternary (publisher of Estudos do Quaternário / Quaternary Studies) and the Portuguese Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists. He is a member of several national and international scientific and professional associations. The ethics at the science production and practical applications of the Earth Sciences has always been a concern and a guideline for his activities, a challenge for a geologist who, being born from a school oriented to the exploitation of geological resources in what he calls back "Predatory Geology", has gradually changed his priorities to become a geoethics advocate as an environmental and social geologist.

Tony Mayer
Swindon UK (Research Integrity consultant)
Research integrity
Elizabeth Silva
Geoethics and Geoparks

She is member of the Portuguese Commission for UNESCO, responsible for the Science Sector. From 2016, she is Vice-Chair of the Advisory Committee of the Association "Global Geoparks Network" and UNESCO expert for the International Geoscience and Geoparks Program of UNESCO. From 2012 to 2016 she has been the IAPG Continental Coordinator for Europe.

Ruth Allington
GWP Consultants LLP, IUGS-TGGGP (UK)
Geoscience Professionalism

Joint Senior Partner of GWP Consultants LLP, the firm she joined in 1981 immediately after graduating. She has a joint honours BSc from King’s College London in geology and geography and an MSc in engineering geology from Durham University. In the mid 1990s she completed an MBA through the Open University. She is an experienced expert witness and a qualified commercial mediator. Ruth applies her engineering geology and geomorphology in the UK and internationally to mineral resource evaluation, geological modelling, and the detailed design and scheduling of quarries, landfills and open pit mines for construction materials, industrial minerals and solid fuel minerals. This includes the design of pit geometries as well as optimising economics, safety and environmental impact issues. She is a principal author of A Quarry Design Handbook 2014 (
Alongside mainstream technical consulting, Ruth is very experienced in training for specialists and non-specialists working in and affected by the quarrying and related industries and, more generally, in dispute resolution and dispute avoidance. A particular skill and passion is as a communicator of scientific and engineering concepts to members of the public and non-specialist legislators and regulators in connection with mineral projects and some significant engineering and infrastructure projects – securing a ‘social licence to operate’. She travels widely in Europe and further afield and is excited by the challenges of delivering successful solutions to clients in different cultural, climatic and environmental settings.
Ever since graduating, she has participated in the geoscience community, initially through committee and Council service at the Geological Society of London (notably, Chair of the Engineering Group between 1998 and 2000, and Professional Secretary 2002-2005). She was a Council member of European Federation of Geologists (EFG) from 2002-2009 and President from 2009 to 2013. She is a member of the Pan European Reserves and Resources Reporting Committee (PERC).
Ruth is committed to promoting the highest professional and technical standards amongst geologists and others involved in the application of geoscience to construction and solid mineral extraction, particularly through active participation in professional associations and societies and in the promotion of professional titles such as CGeol, CEng and EurGeol. She is passionate about promoting ‘joined up thinking’ and risk reduction through encouraging collaborative approaches to problem definition and problem solving based on effective communication and co-operation in the margins between disciplines as well as between technical specialists and the public.

Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Marco
Spanish Research Council - CSIC, Institute of Geosciences - IGEO (Spain)
Geoethics in Paleontology

He is a geologist and palaeontologist (ORCID Code 0000-0003-4213-6144) with graduate and doctorate degrees from the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). Since 1988 he is a Permanent Research Scientist of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC), presently at the Institute of Geosciences (IGEO), Madrid (Spain). He is the chairman of the research group on the Perigondwanan marine Palaeozoic (CSIC Code 642852), corresponding academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Argentina, and honorary member of the Spanish Association of Petroleum Geologists and Geophysicists (AGGEP). He was Director of the Institute of Economic Geology (CSIC-UCM) from 2001‒2006 and former Vice-Chairman of the IUGS International Subcommission on Ordovician Stratigraphy (ICS-IUGS, 2004‒2012). His main research interest focuses on several invertebrate fossil groups (graptolites, trilobites, molluscs, and others) ranging from the Ordovician to Devonian in the peri-Gondwanan area of SW Europe, North Africa and South America, including aspects of biostratigraphy, palaeobiogeography and faunal dynamics; he also worked in Ordovician chronostratigraphy and biochronology of the Gondwanan domain. His scientific results totalize nearly 500 works including research papers (WoS h-index=14), books and geologic maps, besides the discovery and formal characterisation of 113 new palaeontological taxa from the Palaeozoic. He has also directed 20 competitive research projects and programmes on bilateral cooperation, seven PhD theses in Spanish and Portuguese universities, and was the lead organiser of important meetings, such as the 11th International Ordovician Symposium, the 6th International Graptolite Conference, and the 1st International Conference on the Lower Palaeozoic of Ibero-America, among others.

Robert Frodeman
University of North Texas (USA)
Geoethics and Philosophy

Professor of Philosophy at the University of North Texas. His work ranges across environmental philosophy, the philosophy of geology, the philosophy of science and technology policy, and the philosophy of interdisciplinarity. He is the author and/or editor of 9 books, including Geo-Logic: Breaking Ground between Philosophy and the Earth Sciences (SUNY, 2003), the Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy (MacMillan, 2008), and the Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity (OUP, 2010). He was the founding Director of the Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity at UNT. Sustainable Knowledge: a theory of interdisciplinarity (Palgrave McMillan) was published in 2013. Socrates Tenured: the Institutions of 21st Century Philosophy (Roman and Littlefield) will be published in 2016.

Mike Buchanan.jpg
Mike Buchanan
(United Kingdom)

Geoethics in Speleology

He has thirty years' experience as speleologist, karstologist. He has focused his interest on the management and conservation of karst groundwater systems and their subterranean component. He has professional experience in the exploration of caves and confined spaces; groundwater tracing and vulnerability mapping of karst freshwater aquifers, in relation to catchments; pollution point source identification by chemical analysis. 

He was co-author of The Management of Karst Landscapes and Caves for UNESCO Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site 2002. 

Christine McEntee
AGU - American Geophysical Union (USA)
Harassment and Discrimination
in Geosciences

She is past Executive Director and CEO of the American Geophysical Union (AGU). She is an association leader and innovator, building a record of achievement in leading large organizations through changes in strategy, governance, membership, programs, and the fluid public policies that confront them. She actively works to improve workplace climate issues and diversity in staff and leadership positions. She has been honored as CEO Update's CEO of the Year (2016), is an American Society of Association Executives Fellow and recipient of the Women Who Advance America award and received the America's Top Women Mentoring Leaders award in 2011 from Women of Wealth magazine. She serves on several medical institution’s boards of directors. Ms. McEntee holds a Master’s in Health Administration from The George Washington University, a bachelor’s degree in Nursing from Georgetown University, and is a graduate of Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management Advanced Executive Program.

Edmund Nickless
British Geological Survey and Geological Society of London (UK)  - Retired; IUGS Councillor 2018-2022
Geoethics for Society

He is a geologist born in North Wales of Austrian-British parentage and a graduate of the University of Manchester. After conducting research into gabbroic intrusions in Sierra Leone and Scotland he joined the UK Natural Environment Research Council. He spent time in the USA in the then Ocean Drilling Program. Later he joined the European Science Foundation in Strasbourg and was also the first Director of the COST Office in Brussels. Co-organiser and Co-Chair of the First (Lisbon) and Second (Singapore) World Conferences on Research Integrity, he was the European Representative of the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Now he is a Research Integrity consultant.

Luis González de Vallejo
Universidad Complutense de Madrid - retired (Spain)
Geoethics in Engineering Geology

Honorific Professor of Engineering Geology at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Spain. Director of the MSc. Courses in Engineering Geology at UCM (from 1990 to 2008). Director of the Geo-Hazard Division of the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias. 
E.B. Burwell Award 2013 of the Geological Society of America (GSA) in Engineering Geology and Environment; XXVII Manuel Rocha Lecture 2010 of the Portuguese Geotechnical Society and the Universidad Nova de Lisboa; II Ing. Ruiz Vazquez Memorial Lecture 2007 of the Academy of Engineering of Mexico. Honorific Member of the Rock Mechanics Society of Spain. Honorific Geologist of the Institution of Chartered Geologist of Spain (Ilustre Colegio Oficial de Geologos - ICOG).
Chairman of the Joint Technical Committee (JTC3) on Education and Training in Geo-Engineering of the Federation of International Societies in Geo-Engineering ISSMGE, ISRM, IAEG (from 2006 to 2010). Member of the International Committee of Experts of the United Nations (UNDRO) for the reduction of seismic risk in the Mediterranean Region. Member of the Spanish Committee on Earthquake-Resistance Codes (from 1984 to 1988).
Associate Editor of the international journal "Soils and Rocks" and member of the Editorial Committee of the "Revista de Geología Aplicada de Argentina" and the "Boletín Geológico y Minero de España". 
He has published 9 books and more than 160 papers in national and international journals and conference proceedings. He has given lectures in 32 universities and institutions from Europe and America.

Until the end of September 2015 when he retired after 18 years service, Edmund Nickless was the Executive Secretary (Executive Director) of the Geological Society of London (GSL), the oldest national geological society in the world. Previously he held senior positions with the British Geological Survey (BGS) where he was for 29 years, during which time he was seconded first to the Earth Sciences Directorate of the Natural Environment Research Council - NERC (1982 to 1989) and then the Science and Technology Secretariat of the Cabinet Office (1989-1991). In BGS he worked on resource assessment projects in England and Scotland and the first environmental geology maps published by the Survey. He has written papers on the Quaternary geology of East Anglia and on celestite, an evaporite mineral occurring in the Bristol area of western England. At NERC he was responsible for research grants, studentships, international programmes including UK membership in the International Ocean Drilling Programme and the British Deep Reflection Profiling Syndicate. At the Cabinet Office he provided policy advice on subjects as diverse as HIV/AIDS, bioethics, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (so called mad cow disease), and the research provisions of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, data charging, space policy and identifying the UK spend on environmental research as part of a government White Paper on the environment. On his return to BGS as an Assistant Director he was responsible for managing the physical and electronic collections, publishing and coordinating external relations. At the GSL he worked with its Council and Officers to move the Society from being solely a learned body to being both a learned society and professional body and, in particular to raise the status of the practice of geology and of its professional title, Chartered Geologist. He developed strong links to other geoscience organisations in North America and Europe and was instrumental in ensuring the Society’s participation in GeoScienceWorld, an electronic aggregate to maximise the discoverability and use of peer reviewed content. As a Board member of the UK Science Council he was active in drafting its Declaration on Diversity, Equality and Inclusion, and as the UK representative to the American Geosciences Institute worked with colleagues to draft their code of ethical guidelines. Currently he is member of the Ethics Board of EPOS - The European Plate Observing System, a Research network aims at creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. Moreover he is Councillor of the IUGS - International Union of Geological Sciences (2016-2020).

Ciro Manzo
CNR - Institute for Atmospheric Pollution Research (Italy)
Geoethics and young geoscientists

He is a geologist born in 1984 in Pompeii, near Naples (Italy), at the feet of Mt. Vesuvio. He was graduated in Applied Geology in 2008 and in 2011 he achieved the PhD title in Environmental Science at the Centre for Geotechnologies (CGT), University of Siena. His main research activities focus on the support of GIS and Remote Sensing for geo-environmental analysis in natural and anthropic areas. He is Post-Doc researcher at Institute for Atmospheric Pollution Research - CNR as expert of Remote Sensing. Since 2009 he is member of Young Earth Scientists (YES) Network and currently he serves as Vice-President in the Executive Committee. He was involved in the organizing committee of national and international events (3rd YES Congress, in Africa; the 2nd Italian Geological Society - Young Section, in Italy). Since 2010 he was lecturer of remote sensing at Master Courses of the University of Siena and at other regional courses.

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